Installing Pi-hole in Hyper-V

Pi-hole is a DNS-based ad and tracking blocker. Originally intended to run on a Raspberry Pi, Pi-hole can itself run officially under almost any Linux distribution. This article discusses the process of installing Pi-hole in Hyper-V for Windows Server. By using Hyper-V you can fully virtualise your Pi-hole environment for both scale-up and scale-out deployments.

View: Pi-hole Project Home Page

System Requirements

Pi-hole’s requirements are extremely modest. The main detail in defining system requirements is the minimum requirement for the Linux distribution that you choose. Unlike other third-party virtualisation platforms, Hyper-V is highly selective over which distributions will work well with its various Microsoft-orchestrated foibles. Consequently, for Windows Server 2016 and 2019 users, CentOS 7 currently offers the best feature support.

Using CentOS 7, a basic Pi-hole installation will require

  • 1 CPU core
  • 700MB RAM
  • 2.5 GB storage space
  • A virtual DVD drive

 

Understand your Pi-hole Design Architecture

The complexity of your existing network and requirements may mean that there are several design decisions that you should make before installing Pi-hole. It is important that you understand these design requirements before implementing Pi-hole, to prevent service disruption.

How should Pi-hole integrate with existing DNS servers?

There are two options for where you place the Pi-hole Server in the DNS lookup chain. Before, or after you internal DNS server.

  • Before: Client Device > Pi-hole > DNS Server/Router > Public DNS
  • After: Client Device > DNS Server > Pi-hole > Public DNS

 

Before the DNS Server

Under the ‘Before’ design, if the Pi-hole goes down, the client device can communicate directly with the existing DNS server/router to make DNS lookups. To use this design, all client devices must be re-configured to perform DNS lookups to the Pi-hole. This is either through adjustment of manual DNS Server assignments on all clients, or by using the DNS options on the DHCP server.

The ‘Before’ design is more flexible as it is possible to have some devices bypass Pi-hole completely (e.g. servers).

If you wish to use the ‘Before’ design. The DHCP Server should advertise the Pi-hole as the client DNS Server. The Pi-hole should in-turn specify the router’s DNS address, public DNS (or both) as its DNS address during installation.

After the DNS Server

In the ‘After’ design, it isn’t possible for any traffic to bypass the Pi-hole filtering. All DNS Servers will rely on the Pi-hole Server for resolution. In this design, no reconfiguration is necessary on clients or DHCP Server. The administrator must instead reconfigure the DNS Servers so that the Pi-hole server is their preferred forwarder. The Pi-hole should then only be configures to forward requests to the ISPs DNS Servers or directly to Public DNS.

The ‘After’ design is less flexible, and will be more prone to issues caused by Pi-hole service outages. The advantage is that for secure environments, it is not possible for DNS traffic to bypass filtering.

 

Redundancy & Failover

If you only have a single Pi-hole server and it fails, what will be the impact to your network? The Pi-hole server could crash, be turned off or even hacked. More likely is the impact of you performing servicing and maintenance on the Pi-hole, creating downtime. Most business deployments should therefore make use of Virtualisation to provide failover and redundancy for the Pi-hole VM. Additionally, most business deployments should have at least 2 Pi-hole servers. Both of which should be made available to service clients using either load balancing or Primary/Secondary DNS Server preferences.

In most ‘Before’ environments (see above), you should continue to advertise the existing, non-Pi-hole DNS Servers to your clients. For example, if your Router’s IP address is 192.168.1.254 and the Pi-hole Server’s is 192.168.1.2, your DHCP Server’s primary DNS option should be 192.16.1.2 (for the Pi-hole) and its secondary should be 192.168.1.254. By advertising a secondary, you give the client a chance to recover (with ads) if the Pi-hole Server fails.

 

IP Addressing

You must use a static IP / reserved IP address for your Pi-hole installation. Ensure that you know what this address is before commencing the installation and that any intermediate firewalls allow HTTP (TCP 80) and DNS (UDP 53) traffic.

 

Integration with Active Directory

Under ‘Before’ deployments, an issue may occur for businesses using Directory Services (e.g. Active Directory). The Pi-hole Server will receive an internal request for you company domain e.g. ad.mycompany.co.uk, but will forward this directly to Public DNS. As the AD domain is private, the Public DNS will fail to resolve the request. Within a few minutes of deploying Pi-hole, network clients will become unable to communicate with resources on your business network.

To ensure that there is no DNS route susceptible to this issue, you must ensure that a Conditional forwarder is configured before going-live. You add the conditional forwarder to Pi-hole via Settings > DNS > Conditional Forwarding.

Warning: At the current time, Pi-hole only support a single Conditional Forwarder. This may be a problem in multi-domain Active Directory forests.

 

Create the Virtual Machine

In Hyper-V Manager, create a new Virtual Machine with the following characteristics:

  • Generation 2
  • Secure Boot Disabled
  • 512 MB startup RAM
    • Enable dynamic memory with 256 MB minimum RAM and 1024 MB maximum RAM
  • 2 virtual processors
  • A virtual hard drive – I suggest leaving the defaults, but I would suggest having 10 GB minimum size
  • A virtual DVD drive
    • Mount the CentOS 7 installer ISO into the virtual DVD Drive
  • A virtual network adapter, connected to your client facing LAN
  • Automatic start action: Always start this virtual machine automatically

 

Installing CentOS

Download the ~950MB Minimal CentOS ISO from the CentOS website. Using the Minimal install ensures that as little RAM and disk space as possible will be used for your Pi-hole environment. A consequence of this is that you will not have a X11 GUI to work with. If this is something that you find off-putting, be reassured that there is not much that you need to do on the Linux command line to get Pi-hole up and running.

Download: CentOS 7

Boot the Hyper-V virtual machine and from the DVD boot menu, choose to Install CentOS

Ensure that you

  1. Select your correct region, time zone and keyboard layout
  2. Configure your Virtual Machines network adapter to use a static IP address e.g. ‘192.168.1.2’ with a ’24’ mask and a gateway of ‘192.168.1.254’
  3. Ensure that you set the correct up-stream DNS servers for your system, this could be your internal DNS servers, your router or a public DNS service such as Google DNS on ‘8.8.8.8, 8.8.4.4’ (note the comma)
  4. If you are on a business network, set the DNS search alias to match your network domain name e.g. ad.mycompany.co.uk
  5. Once ready, begin the CentOS 7 installation. While it is installing, ensure that you set a new ‘root’ password. You do not need to add any additional user accounts to the CentOS install to use Pi-hole

 

Complete CentOS Configuration

Once the installation has finished, you will be presented with the white on black CentOS logon screen. There are a small number of pre-configuration steps to perform before you can install Pi-hole.

Note: Your Virtual Machine will need access to the Internet from this point forward.

  1. Log-in as ‘root’ (lower case), using the password you entered during setup
  2. Type the following command, confirming that you accept the installation of the new application. Please note that ALL Linux command line commands are case sensitive:
    yum install nano
  3. Once nano is installed, execute the command:
    nano /etc/sysconfig/selinux
  4. Nano will load the ‘selinux’ configuration file. Use the cursor keys, delete/backspace, locate the line
    SELINUX=enforcing
  5. Edit the “SELINUX=enforcing’ line to read:
    SELINUX=permissive
    Note: This is case sensitive.
    By changing the SELINUX configuration value, you will lower the system security level to permit Pi-hole to run. Pi-hole cannot load unless this step has been performed.
    Disable SELinux
  6. To save the file and exit Nano, enter the following commands on the keyboard:
    Ctrl + O (to save the file)
    Press Enter (to accept the file name and complete the save)
    Ctrl + X (to exit Nano)
  7. You must now reboot the Virtual Machine. Do this by entering the following command:
    shutdown -r now

 

Installing Pi-hole

Once CentOS is configured, you can install Pi-hole.

  1. Once the Virtual Machine has rebooted, log in once again as ‘root’
  2. Enter the following command to download the Pi-hole installer and begin setup:
    curl -sSL https://install.pi-hole.net | bash
  3. Follow through the wizard, choosing options suitable for your environment. There are no special configuration steps required for running Pi-hole specifically under Hyper-V
  4. You can take a note of the randomly-generated admin account password, however I recommend following the steps in the Post-install Tasks section to change the password immediately

 

Post-install Tasks

Before you start to use Pi-hole, you should perform some basic configuration tasks.

  1. Change the randomly assigned Pi-hole admin account password to something more memorable. From the command line enter:
    pihole -a -p
    When you press return, you will be asked to enter a new password
  2. Update and patch CentOS
    yum update
    Accept any updates that are available to install and allow CentOS to self-update
  3. Once CentOS has finished updating reboot the server a final time by issuing the reboot command:
    shutdown -r now
  4. [Optional] Consider enabling HTTPS (TCP 443) support for the Pi-hole admin interface.
    View: Enabling HTTPS for your Pi-hole Web Interface

 

Web Interface Configuration Tasks

After the installation has completed successfully. You can log into your Pi-hole installation from any web browser on any device via:

  • http://pi.hole/admin

-or-

  • http://<your IP address>/admin
    e.g. http://192.168.1.2/admin

 

[Optional] If you are using Active Directory, or another x.500, DNS bound service. Add a conditional forwarder for your domain:

  1. Navigate to: Settings > DNS > Conditional Forwarding
  2. Tick the “Use Conditional Forwarding” check box
  3. In the “IP of your router” text box, enter the IP address of an authoritative DNS server for your domain
  4. In the “Local domain name” text box, enter your fully qualified domain name e.g. ad.mycompany.co.uk

 

Maintenance Tasks

As with any software application, Pi-hole will periodically receive updates. Similarly, so will CentOS. Unfortunately at the time or writing, Pi-hole does not support self-updating via the web interface. Consequently, you should periodically log into the CentOS VM and perform maintenance from the command line. This is a fairly simple process, requiring only two commands

  1. Update CentOS:
    yum update
  2. Update Pi-hole:
    pihole -up

You may also wish to periodically reboot the server after updating by issuing the reboot command:
shutdown -r now

You can also reboot the Pi-hole server via the Settings page on the web interface.

Hyper-V Error Message Cheat-sheet

The aim of this article is to create a slowly growing cheat-sheet of Hyper-V Errors and known fixes.

Errors without Error Codes

These errors are UI errors that do not provide a Hex Error Code / Win32 Error Code.

There was an error during move operation.

Migration operation on ‘<VM Name>’ failed.

See 0x80041024
There was an error during move operation.

Virtual machine migration operation failed at migration source.

Failed to create folder.

See 0x80070005

 

Errors with Error Codes

The following errors have error codes either stated on GUI error messages, as part of PowerShell error messages or in the Hyper-V event logs in Event Viewer.

0x80041024

Event ID: 16000

The Hyper-V Virtual Machine Management service encountered an unexpected error: Provider is not capable of the attempted operation (0x80041024).

  1. One or both of the Hyper-V servers has an invalid or inaccessible IP address/network address on the “Incoming live migrations” list on the “Live Migrations” tab in Hyper-V settings
  2. The live migration network is down, the/a cable is unplugged or faulty
0x80070002 Could not create backup checkpoint for virtual machine ‘<VM Name>’: The system cannot find the file specified. (0x80070002). (Virtual machine ID <VM GUID>).

For more on this, seem my in-depth article.

  1. Check that you have enough disk space on the volume to perform the VSS. If your volume is sub-15%, try using the Hyper-V Manager to change the snapshot directory to another volume – plug in an external NTFS formatted hard drive if you have to.
  2. Check the permissions of the VHD stated in the error.
    icacls “C:\Users\Public\Documents\Hyper-V\Virtual Hard Disks\<VHD File>” /grant “NT VIRTUAL MACHINE\Virtual Machines”:F
  3. Check that you can manually checkpoint/snapshot the VM while it is running.
    In Hyper-V Manager or in PowerShell, force a checkpoint on the VM and then delete it and wait for it to merge back. If this works, you are not having a physical VSS issue. If it fails, you need to troubleshoot this and not the WSB error.
  4. Live Migrate the VM off of the current server and onto a different Hypervisor, attempt the backup here, then bring it back to the original server and try again. This process will reset the permissions on the VM file set. If you cannot live or offline migrate the VM, the you need to troubleshoot this and not the WSB error
  5. Ensure that all VHDX files associated with the VM are on the same storage volume and not spread across multiple Volumes/LUNs (be it individual disks, logical RAID or iSCSI disks). If they are, move them to a common location and retry the operation.
0x80070005 ‘General access denied error'(‘0x80070005’)

For more on this, see my in-depth article.

  1. If you are using a management console (not the local Hyper-V console to perform the migration. You must setup Kerberos Constrained Delegation for all of your Hyper-V hosts machine accounts in Active Directory.
  2. Ensure that both NetBIOS and fully qualified DNS entries exist in the Constrained delegation (click the “Expanded” check box to verify this) e.g. myserver1 and mysever1.mydomain.local for both “CIFS” and “Microsoft Virtual System Migration Service”
  3. For Hyper-V 2008, 2008 R2, 2012 and 2012 R2 “Trust this computer for delegation to specified services only” should be used along with “Use Kerberos only”
  4. For Hyper-V 2016 and 2019 or a mixed environment “Trust this computer for delegation to specified services only” must be used along with “Use any authentication protocol”
0x8007274C

Event ID: 20306

The Virtual Machine Management Service failed to establish a connection for a Virtual Machine migration with host ‘<Hypervisor FQDN>’: A connection attempt failed because the connected party did not properly respond after a period of time, or established connection failed because connected host has failed to respond. (0x8007274C).

  1. The Live Migration firewall rules have not been enabled in Windows Firewall (or your third party firewall). This is especially easy to forget on Server Core and Hyper-V Server installs.
  2. No DNS server(s) or invalid DNS server(s) have been specified on the network configuration for the hypervisor
  3. Specified DNS server(s) are unreachable
  4. An intermediate firewall or IDS blocked the request

LibreElec 9 / Kodi “Failed to play game” error accessing game files over SMB network share

If you have attempted to use the Games section in Kodi 18, you may have run into the issue of trying to play Kodi games over SMB (a network share). This article discusses how to workaround the error:

Failed to play game
This game can only be plated directly from a hard drive or partition. Compressed files must be extracted.

Screnshot of Kodi "Failed to play game" error

On clicking ‘OK’ you will be unable to play any game stored on a SMB share for some emulator types. You will not universally encounter the error for all games. Nintendo SNES and Gameboy will work, while Comodor Amiga 500 and Sega MegaDrive emulation games will fail with the above error message.

 

LibreELEC/Linux Kodi games over SMB workaround

You can work around the error (in most, but not all circumstances) by mounting the SMB share in the operating system and not via Kodi.

Note: The following is written for LibreELEC 9.0. Steps may vary for other Linux distributions.

  1. Ensure that SSH is enabled in LibreELEC / you linux distribution
  2. Use SSH at the command line or Putty for Windows to SSH into the LibreELEC device
    1. Default username: root
    2. Default password: libreelec
  3. Create a new folder under the /storage/ path to serve as the mount point for your SMB share
    mkdir /storage/mysmbgames
  4. Mount the SMB path in the operating system
mount -t cifs //<FQDN or hostname>/<share name> /storage/mysmbgames -o username="<my username>",password=<my password>
e.g.mount -t cifs //mynetworkserver/GameRoms /storage/mysmbgames -o username="joebloggs",password=12345abcde
  1. In Kodi use Settings > File manager to browse to the games folder or add the new path to the Games library
  2. Play your game

 

Windows Kodi games over SMB workaround

To overcome the “Failed to play game” error on Windows, you can create a symbolic link to your SMB share via the operating system, rather than relying on Kodi to mount the SMB share.

  1. Open an elevated command prompt
  2. Enter the command to create a directory symbolic link
mklink /D <path to symlink mount point> <path to SMB share>
e.g.
mklink /D "C:\games" "\\mynetworkserver\GameRoms"
  1. A new folder will be created on c:\games that connects to your SMB share.
    Note: To remove the link, just delete the c:\games folder from the c: drive (it will not delete your games)
  2. In Kodi use Settings > File manager to browse to the games folder or add the new path to the Games library
  3. Play your game

How to enable the Analog Internal Search Query Report for WordPress

Did you realise that Analog CE can report in searches made through internal website search engines as well as external ones? This article discusses how to connect the WordPress search function to the Analog CE Internal Search Reports.

 

Keeping an eye on your users

Knowing what your users are searching for should be a core part of your SEO strategy. The Analog CE Internal Search Query and Internal Search Word reports can be a useful tool in understanding user interest and habits.

Analog CE’s two Internal Search reports are disabled by default. To enable them, you must edit your site config file. If you are using a Global/Site config file structure, you should use the local site config file. Not the Global config file. The exception should be if your Analog CE install is being used for WordPress web-farming.

 

Edit your Analog CE configuration file

Before you can edit the config file you must know the path to your WordPress install. The path should be relative to the root domain of your website.

Tip: Locate the xmlrpc.php, wp-config.php and wp-cron.php files for your install on your web server. This is the root folder of your WordPress installation.

For example. Assuming that your root domain is www.mysite.com:

  • If your wp-config.php is located at www.mysite.com/wp-config.php, your Internal Search Engine Path is “/”.
  • Alternately, if your wp-config.php is found at www.mysite.com/blog/wp-config.php, your Internal Search Engine Path is “/blog/”.

 

Edit your Analog CE configuration file by adding the following lines:

INTSEARCHQUERY ON
INTSEARCHENGINE <Internal Search Engine Path> s
INTSEARCHQUERYFLOOR 10r
INTSEARCHWORDFLOOR 10r

For example:

INTSEARCHQUERY ON
INTSEARCHENGINE / s
INTSEARCHQUERYFLOOR 10r
INTSEARCHWORDFLOOR 10r

This config sample will:

  1. Enable the report
  2. Tells Analog CE how to find the search term (the user provided value of ‘s’)
  3. Sets the Search Query report to only show searches that occur 10 or more times
  4. Configures the Search Word report to only show keywords that occur 10 or more times

 

The next time Analog CE runs, you will have “Internal Search Query Report” and “Internal Search Word Report” sections. If you are running Report Magic, they will be at the bottom of the side-navigation.