PowerShell – Convert DER Encoded Certificate file into a Base64 .cer

System Requirements:

  • Windows PowerShell

The Problem:

If you have a binary encoded .cer (certificate) file that you need to get into a Base64 format, you can either follow the advice and use OpenSSL to convert it or you can import it into the Windows Certificate Store and re-export it.

If you want to do it automatically, without having to download and install anything else, neither option is particularly appealing.

The Fix

You can use the following function to convert the binary encoded file into a Base64 ASCII encoded file

function Convert-CertificateBinaryToBase64 {
param( [string]$SourceFile, [string]$DestinationFile )
$cert = get-content "$SourceFile" -Encoding Byte
$content = @(
[System.Convert]::ToBase64String($cert, 'InsertLineBreaks')
)$content | Out-File -FilePath "$DestinationFile" -Encoding ASCII

Example usage

Convert the file, retaining the source file

Convert-CertificateBinaryToBase64 -Sourcefile 'C:\myBinary.cer' -DestinationFile 'C:\myBase64.cer'

Convert the binary file, overwriting it with the Base64 file

Convert-CertificateBinaryToBase64 -Sourcefile 'C:\myCertificate.cer' -DestinationFile 'C:\myCertificate.cer'

“RPC server unavailable. Unable to establish communication between and ” when connecting to Hyper-V 2008, 2008 R2, 2012, 2012 R2 from Hyper-V Manager version 1709

System Requirements:

  • Windows 10 1709
  • Windows Server 2016
  • Hyper-V Management Console
  • RSAT 2016/1709 for Windows 10 version 1709

The Problem:

After upgrading to Windows 10 version 1709 and installing the updated Windows Server 2016 (version 2016 or version 1709) RSAT tools for Windows 10 1709. On attempting to connect to a down-level Windows Server 2012 R2, 2012, 2008 R2, 2008 Hyper-V Server via the Hyper-V Manager MMC snap-in. You receive the error even though no configuration changes have been made on the Hyper-V hosts:

"RPC server unavailable. Unable to establish communication between <management host> and <Hyper-V host>"

At this point you are unable to manage down-level version of Hyper-V from Windows 10. This issue does not impact the management of remote Windows Server 2016 or Windows Server 1709 Hyper-V instances.

View: Remote Server Administration Tools for Windows 10 (RSAT)

The Fix

This appears to be related to a change in the default firewall behaviour on Windows 10 1709 installs. to fix the problem. On the client system, where you have installed RSAT to remote manage the hypervisor (i.e. not on the hypervisor itself):

  1. Open ‘Administrative Tools’ in the Windows Control Panel
  2. Open ‘Windows Defender Firewall with Advanced Security’
  3. Select ‘Inbound Rules’ from the left hand side
  4. Scroll down until you get to ‘Windows Management Instrumentation (ASync-In)’
  5. Enable the rule for domain/private/public networks as required
    Note: By default the Windows firewall MMC will only display WMI rules for domain and private networks. If you are not running against a domain and Windows has not been explicitly told that you are on a private network, Windows will assume that you are on a public network. Check in network settings in the settings app to ensure that you are not running on a public network, or if you are edit the firewall rule to include public networks. In general, it is a bad idea to open WMI up to traffic on public networks.
  6. Restart Hyper-V Manager

You should now find that you can connect to down-level versions of Hyper-V from Windows 10 1709.

“Some migration network settings cannot be modified or removed because these migration network settings are in use by a cluster” in Hyper-V manager, Hyper-V Settings after a node is non-cleanly evicted from a failed cluster

System Requirements:

  • Windows Server 2008, 2008 R2, 2012, 2012 R2, 2016
  • Hyper-V

The Problem:

After a total cluster failure occurs, or a node is removed from a cluster before it has been cleanly removed. When attempting to locally manage the host as a stand-alone Hyper-V server, you are unable to edit the live migration settings in Hyper-V Settings via Hyper-V Manager with the error

“Some migration network settings cannot be modified or removed because these migration network settings are in use by a cluster”

The IP/Subnet addresses shown on the form will be greyed out and you will be unable to edit the live migration network settings.

Hyper-V Settings: Unable to edit Live Migration Networks

More Info

While you should ensure that you have performed a cluster clean-up on the host

Server 2012 +:
Clear-ClusterNode -Force -CleanupA

Server 2008/R2:
cluster node <hostname> /forcecleanup

This will not solve the live migration settings issue highlighted above.

The Fix

  1. Close Hyper-V Manager on the management workstation
  2. On the hypervisor experiencing these symptoms (not necessarily the management console). Navigate to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Virtualization\Migration\NetworkSettings
  3. Underneath this key there will be a key for each entry shown on the Live Migration Settings screen. The keys will be named Network# e.g. Network0, Network1, Network2 and so on.
  4. Go through each of these Network# keys and locate the ‘Tags’ REG_MULTI_SZ. This will have a value of “Microsoft:ClusterManaged”
    Registry Screenshot: Error
  5. Change the data value to “Microsoft:UserManaged”
    Registry Settings: Fixed
  6. Complete the process for each Network# sub-key
  7. Restart Hyper-V Manager

You will now be able to add, edit and delete the live migration settings.

Blue Screen (BSOD): CONFIG INITIALIZATION FAILED after WIM Image Creation Process

System Requirements:

  • Windows 7, 8.0, 8.1, 10
  • Windows Server 2008 R2, 2012, 2012 R2, 2016

The Problem:

I am a DVBLink user. DVBLink does not play nicely with Windows Service and consequently it wants to run on a client OS. This means that I have lots of server hardware running server Operating Systems and one device with 4 TV Tuners in it running Windows 10.

After modifying the registry of an off-line WIM image, after the initial image has been inflated onto the drive, the system blue screens (BSOD) at the first reboot with

Your PC ran into a problem and needs to restart. We'll restart for you.For more information abotu this issue and possible fixes, visit https://www.windows.com/stopcodeIf you call a support person, give them this info:


The newly imaged system will now get stuck in a boot loop.

More Info

You have a corrupted registry.

The Fix

There are a number of possibilities to explore first

Check that you haven’t deleted the contents of CurrentControlSet (reference machine prior to sysprep) or ControlSet001 (reference machine and WIM file) from the registry

Check that you haven’t deleted the SYSTEM file from C:\Windows\System32\Config (this is a hidden file and it has no file extension)

Finally, if you injected registry data into an offline WIM image, ensure that you did not create the Key .\CurrentControlSet in the C:\Windows\System32\Config\SYSTEM. CurrentControlSet is a virtualised key that is loaded and unloaded dynamically as part of the Windows boot proceess (it is actually a copy of ControlSet001). When the system goes through shutdown or a reboot, CurrentControlSet is cleared and ControlSet001 is copied in-place. If the key CurrentControlSet exists in the WIM file’s registry, Windows will present the CONFIG INITIALISATION FAILED blue screen of death as it is not expecting the CurrentControlSet key to exist at all.

To fix the problem, re-mount your image and from the SYSTEM container move any data from CurrentControlSet into ControlSet001 and then completely delete the key for CurrentControlSet